The world we live in is filled with wonderful colors. This is what makes life worth living. Nothing excites the person more than a world filled with stimulating colors that allow them to appreciate the wonders of the world. Whether it be the colors of the stars the fill the night sky or the poisonous plants that send signals to our mammalian brains that this is not worth our time, our eyes allow us to judge the environment to our advantage.
For years, the field of medicine has been indispensable in allowing the humans to attain a natural advantage over the dangers of Mother Nature. It has allowed the species to survive because of its powerful ability to distinguish potential threats as well as excellent food sources.
In this article, we discuss the nature of the disease of the organ in the body that allows us such natural advantages and the ways we can preserve and improve such. Eye diseases have been with humanity since time immemorial, whether it’s a simple eye trauma from a blunt blow or an insidious disease from diabetes, eye diseases have been a bane to humanity. The eye is a camera as you already know; it requires a light source, lens and film to work albeit it’s a lot more complicated if you integrate the optic nerves and the brain function in interpreting the flipped image. But nevertheless, the diseases that come about in the eye will require a good understanding of the anatomy as well as the physiology of the eye.
The first we shall discuss is the most common of eye diseases, pink eyes or its medical term, conjunctivitis. This disease is relatively straightforward. The presence of bacteria in the eye causes a local acute inflammatory reaction that causes the eyes to take on a “pinkish-reddish” appearance while being remarkably itchy. With proper treatment, antibiotics and good hygiene the condition will resolve within the week.
Foreign Objects in the Eye
Another disease is foreign objects in the eye. This is relatively common as even though our eyes have a good built in blink reflex as well as eyelashes, there will come a time when an unexpected fleck of material finds its way inside. It causes the same reaction as the above mentioned pink eye but is more persistent as long the foreign object remains in the eye. Most foreign objects end up on the cornea, causing corneal abrasions and need to be identified with a special dye as well as the use of an ophthalmic anesthetic to diminish the blink reflex. With excellent visualization of the object, removal and proper antibiotics the eye can return to its proper functioning in a few days.
The eye has a drain that drains aqueous humor to maintain the shape of the eye for optimum vision, however there are cases wherein the eye is unable to drain said humor at a constant rate leading to a buildup of intraocular pressure. This leads to the development of glaucoma which is disastrous as this could lead to loss of vision as the retinal cells are squeezed to tightly to receive nourishment from the blood supply. This disease needs to be diagnosed immediately so that vision saving interventions can be implemented promptly. The doctor may use pressure reducing drugs like diuretics or in refractive cases, install a drain to ease the pressure in the eye. Once the pressure is under control, measure such as constant pressure management will be in place to keep the eye safe.
Piercing or Blunt Trauma
One of the greatest tragedies is to lose sight, literally. One of the ways to lose one sight I plain blunt or piercing trauma to the brain. This leads to destruction of the delicate cells needed to maintain vision such as the cornea, the lens or the vitreous humor or a compressive force so strong as to cause a blowout rupture of the eye. In cases like these, the eye is carefully assessed to see if an ocular prosthesis is needed or enucleation/total removal of the eyeball to allow the surrounding area to heal and prevent infection. Intervention like antibiotics and proper cleaning will ensure that the surrounding area will heal. Special attention should be given to the remaining eye to ensure that its vision will compensate for the eye that is lost.
One usually thinks of Diabetes Mellitus as a disease that only affects the heart and the kidney. It turns out that when not given proper attention. Diabetes Mellitus can cause irreparable damage to the eye in the form of lens deformation as well as compromising the blood supply of the eye. In cases such as the interventions need to be done to lower blood sugar as gradually as possible.
So there you have it! A lot of diseases can affect the eye and it is our greatest interest to preserve such a valuable sense of sight by being aware of the potential diseases that will come about to affect it.